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Research: Getting Started: Tips & Resources for FYS Writing



 “quote sandwich” or PIE

  • Set up the Quote – Purpose
  • Cite the Quote – Illustration
  • Analyze/Explain the Quote – how does it fit in with your argument

Writing from an Outline:

Intro Paragraph

  • Hook
  • Context
  • Thesis

Body Paragraph(s) (repeat as needed)

  • Topic Sentence
  • Concrete Detail(s)
    • PIE – using quotes
  • Analysis (varies by paragraph as needed)
    • Argument support
    • Counter-argument
  • Transition Sentence


  • Summary of thesis/analysis/evidence
  • Significance

Outline adapted from: Structuring Body Paragraphs: An Academic Writing Workshop (UDC)

Head, Research & Instruction

Carol Wittig's picture
Carol Wittig

Religious Studies, Philosophy & Journalism
184, Research & Collaborative Area
Boatwright Library
University of Richmond
28 Westhampton Way
Richmond, VA 23173
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