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Print Processes Represented in the Prints and Photographs Division of the LOC
Included in this guide are descriptions and examples of photographic processes represented in the collections of the Prints and Photographs Division. The information is meant to help people understand the history, function, and production techniques of original photographs viewed either at Reading Room tables or in our online catalog as digital reproductions.
Some processes are direct-image positives, while others are printed from various types of negatives. We have provided a Chronological Listing to indicate which processes were in use at the same time and to assist with dating images.
Alternative Photography Processes
"Historical photographic methods in use today – the art, processes and techniques of alternative photography. Photography as it should be: hands on, fun and inspiring."
"Creating and processing albumen paper"
Step by step instructions to making a print using plants.
"Calotypy for the 21st Century; Pt1: Dr Hugh Diamond’s Single Solution Process: Christopher Wright gives us a history of Calotypes and explains the process."
Carbon Print Process
"How to make a carbon print in one easy lesson!"
The Chlorophyll Process
"The chlorophyll process is an organic alternative photography process akin to the anthotype process. However, instead of printing on the crushed extract of fruit or plant matter, the prints are bleached by sunlight directly onto the surface of leaves using a positive. Tiffany Pereira shares her experience with this process."
Beat the Blues: Making Cyanotypes
"Cyanotypes are fun and easy and are the perfect way to begin your exploration of alternative and historical photographic processes."
A Brief Guide to Bacquerel Daguerreotype
"A description of the daguerreotype process by Jason Greenberg Motamedi."
Combining Gelatin Silver and Cyanotype
"After experimenting Amber Reumann Engfer has found a way to create a cyanotype on a fiber based gelatin silver paper (black and white paper)"
An Introduction to the Gum Bichromate Process
"Peter J. Blackburn gives us an introduction to the Gum bichromate process including a step-by-step to give anyone a good start."
The Infrared Process
"A guide for using infrared film by Elizabeth Holmes."
"Marek Matusz gives us a brief overview of an old camera-less process."
"Nicolai Klimaszewski explains Auer’s nature print process with variations. The process can render a detailed continuous tone print of an object without using a camera"
Intaglio Photogravure printmaking
"A description of the intaglio photogravure printmaking process by Peter Miller"
Photolithoraphy - a history and its process
"Angela Young describes the background of photolithography and shows, step by step how to make a print."
How a Pinhole Camera WOrks
"An excerpt from From pinhole to print – Inspiration, instructions and insights in less than an hour. How a camera without a lens can be used to take pictures."
The Platino-Palladiotype Process
"The following method of printing in platinum, palladium, or a mixture of both metals, has been evolved to overcome the difficulties and disadvantages of the traditional platinotype. Newcomers are strongly advised to begin with palladium alone – even though it is at present as expensive as platinum: palladium more readily gives a finer image on a wider range of papers. Its permanence is, for all practical purposes, hardly less than that of platinum."
The Woodburytype Process
"Woodburytype, Woodbury-process and Photo-lithophane by Nicolai Klimaszewski."